What is Colorectal Cancer? 

Colorectal cancer, also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer, is a disease in which cells in the colon or rectum grow out of control. 

Some of the risk factors that cause colorectal cancer are the existence of colon or rectal cancer family history, diet, alcohol intake, smoking, and inflammatory bowel disease.

According to the studies, colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that affect all sexes. In general colorectal cancer occurs among individuals ages 45 and older, but also affects younger people. 

Colorectal cancers generally start as small polyps that occur inside the colon. These adenomatous polyps are benign clumps of cells that may turn into colon cancers over time. 

What are The Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer?

Colorectal cancer especially at the first stages may be asymptomatic. That is the reason that every individual over 45 years must be screened regularly. As colorectal cancer gets worse it may cause some symptoms listed below…

  • Changes in bowel habits
  • Blood in or on the stool 
  • Bright red blood from the rectum
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Feeling full, bloating, and abdominal pain
  • Feeling that the bowel does not get empty all the way
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Unknown or unexplained weight loss
  • Anemia

Treatments for Colorectal Cancer in Turkey (Türkiye)

Colorectal cancer treatments in Turkey (Türkiye) are performed with a multidisciplinary team, in which a surgeon, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and gastroenterologist take place. 

Treatment options and recommendations about colorectal cancer treatments in Turkey will be planned depending on the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, individual preferences, and overall health. 

Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are the most common treatment options. On the other hand physical, social, and emotional effects of cancer have to be supported during the cancer treatment. 

Surgery is the first option that needs to be considered. Removing the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during the operation helps to prevent remission and the chance of recurrence. Surgical options for colorectal cancer include “Laparoscopic surgery”, “Colostomy” and “Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or cryoablation”. 

Radiation therapy is another option for the treatment of colorectal cancer in Turkey. “Radiation therapy” and “External-beam radiation therapy” is generally used for treating rectal cancer. “Stereotactic radiation therapy” is the radiation therapy used if colorectal cancer has spread to the liver or lungs. 

Intraoperative radiation therapy is the radiation therapy used during surgery. Radiation therapy may be used before rectal cancer surgery to shrink the tumor. Also, chemotherapy may be suggested to increase the effectiveness of the radiation therapy.

Chemotherapy is the medication treatment plan that is generally planned after or in some cases before the surgery, to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy helps to eliminate any remaining cancer cells after the surgery. When Chemotherapy is planned before the surgery it helps to reduce the size of the tumor. 

Targeted therapy is a personalized treatment that is planned due to the individual’s genes, proteins, and other factors in the tumor. Targeted therapy treatment helps to block the growth and spread of cancer cells.

Immunotherapy is the type of treatment that uses the body’s natural defense. In Turkey Immunotherapy for colorectal cancer is planned to fight cancer by improving the immune system’s ability. 

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